Sentence Structure 2

Welcome

This is the second lesson plan of Level 1. We call each of our lesson plans as 'Sentence Structure' and you are currently reading Sentence Structure 2 or SS 2. To understand this SS the students are expected to have a working knowledge of Level '0'. You can confirm their knowledge by taking then through the Level Selector Test. It is suggested that the teacher starts teaching his/her students from Level 0 (which is our most elementary lesson plan) itself and then moves ahead with the lesson plans chronologically. If the students seem comfortable with a lesson plan than it can be taught at a faster pace but it must not be skipped altogether in most cases.


How should I teach the content in this lesson plan to my students?

Before going to the class read this lesson plan from top to bottom. After this, jump straight to the table section and sketch all the given tables in your notebook by choosing a few words from each cell. No need to select all the words given in a table; just choose the ones that you think are necessary.
Now go to the Vocabulary section and jot down all the words from the vocabulary section in the notebook. Students must be taught as many new words as they can digest in each class so jotting down all the words in the Vocab section is crucial. Next go to the exercises and activities/stories sections and jot down a few exercise/activities/stories in the notebook. Now you are ready to teach.

Remember that instead of jotting down everything by hand you can also copy-paste the relevant content from the lesson plan to a word document and take a printout of that document to the class.

Now setup the class and after setting up the class follow these steps:

First, cover the vocabulary section by explaining the meaning of each word (as far as possible) to the students in their native language. Some words in English may have no translation in other languages e.g. is, am, are etc. Skip these words. Ask the students to note down all the words (that you teach) with their meanings in their notebooks. These words from the vocabulary section will be used in creating the table which should be taught next.

Now its time to recreate the table(s) (as jotted in the notebook) on the black board or the students' notebooks. After this, create some sentences using match the following technique i.e. by choosing one word/phrase from 1st column, and then choosing an appropriate word/phrase from second column followed by choosing the appropriate 3rd column phrase/word and so on; and then joining these words/phrases together to form a complete sentence.
Demonstrate this process to the students and lead them to make few more sentences like this. A few sample sentences, made using the table words, are given below the table for quick reference.
Remember that during the class itself, words in the table can be customized i.e. new words can be added and/or old ones can be removed; all based on your judgement (keeping in mind the student(s)'s background).

After teaching the tables, once you realize that the student(s) has some clarity about the tables, you can begin with the individual exercises (that you jotted down). The exercises can be taught in any order but it is recommended to teach them in the order given in the lesson plan (SS). After the exercises move on to the stories/activities section. This section is created to enable the students to start using all the sentences taught in the SS in their routine conversations. If the students are able to complete the exercises and activities satisfactorily this means that you have succeeded in teaching them the SS and now you can move on to the next SS.


About this SS

This SS aims to teach ownership to the students. Some objects and living things can be more accurately represented by mentioning their ownership for e.g. a pencil may belong to Rohan and we can call it 'Rohan’s pencil'; a lady may be a male student’s sister and we can call her 'his sister'.

In this SS, we explain how these possessive nouns (i.e. nouns along with their ownership e.g. my cat, her hat, and their ball etc) can be used as a subject or object in a sentence. The teacher should encourage the students to point out the things (including people) around them and tell their relation with respect to these things for e.g. my bag, our school's tree, my best friend, their classmates etc. The sentence which we will use with these new nouns will be almost the same as the ones taught in the previous SS.

After this SS, in the coming SS, we will directly using these possessive nouns (like my car, and her school etc) as subject or object with the usual one word nouns (like Shyam, car, and cat etc) without making a distinction between the two.  

New things to teach


  1. Students must be explained that certain things belong to certain other things or person. E.g. In a classroom there might be some chairs which specifically belong to that classroom so we can “This is a classroom. These are its chairs. This is a duster. This is its blackboard”, here blackboard and chair belong to that particular classroom so they have the word 'its' signifying that possession. But duster does not seem to specifically belong to the classroom so no possession (my, her, and its etc) has come with it. When to have association with a noun and when not to have it, must be taught to the students using different examples.
  2. Teacher must teach all the words that describe the possible family members that a person could have i.e. mother, father, brother, and sister etc. And also teach some relations which a students associates e.g. classmate, friend, teacher, doctor, and carpenter etc.
  3. Emphasize these words: “elder” and “ younger” – to be used with family members.
  4. What is the difference between These, Those and They? These, Those and They are plural forms of This, That, It. Understanding the difference between these three pronouns may be difficult for the students because their meaning is very similar.
    This ->These: These is used to refer to people and objects that are near the speaker. These men are my co-workers.These kids saw the accident.
    That -> Those: Those is used to refer to people and objects that are away from the speaker.Those men are my co-workers.Those kids saw the accident.
    It -> They: They is used to refer to people and objects in general, regardless of where they are.They are my co-workers.They saw the accident.
  5. Explain the purpose of his/her/our/their : the person/objects being pointed at by these words has to be first introduced e.g. He is Salim. He is my brother. His age is 15 years (after the he, “his” makes sense).
  6. Explain that is/are is decided by the singularity of last subject that comes before it e.g. my friends are abc and xyz respectively : my friends class is in 6th class: my friends classes are 5th and 6th respectively. Explain that plural subjects can be combined together in a singular subject e.g my friends’ classes are 6th and 10th; my friends’ class is 10th; both are correct and are used in different scenarios (later is used when all of the friends have same class and vice versa for former).
  7. Teach the students to add the word 'respectively' if 'and' is used in the subject column (not shown in the this table) e.g. their names are Raghav and Anjali respectively.

Vocabulary

NOTE:  Students must be taught the pronunciation of these words along with their meaning. These words may be taught as part of a dictation.

Words used in the table:

Pronouns

(I), he, she, it, this, that, these, those, they

Possessive pronouns

​My, your, his, her, their, our, its

Interrogative words ​

​who, what

Verbs

​is, are, (am)

Nouns

Family Members: mother, father, grandfather, grandmother, uncle, aunt, cousin, brother, sister, niece

Other common relations:  friend, neighbour, classmate, teacher, student

Common Objects: pen, pencil, chalk, table, chair

Others:  name, age, class, height, inches, feet, weight, kg, school

Adjectives​

​elder, younger

Tables

Part A: The basics

  • Main TABLE
  • Question table 1
  • Question Table 2

This table is for people.

NOTE:

  • Here sentence can be created by just ending with column3 (e.g. who is she? who are they? ). Reply would be simply “This is Anjali / she is my mother / he is my father etc”.
  • Sentence can also be created or by using column 1,2,4,5 (skipping column 3) e.g. who is your friend? Answer: he is my friend etc.
  • The reply in each case includes a finger point to that person(s).

Who

is

he?

she?

Raghav | Anjali?

my | your | his | her | their| our

its

Raghav’s | Anjali's

cousin?

mother?

father?

friend?

elder brother?

younger sister?

grandfather?

classmate?

teacher?

student?

are

they?

my | your | his | her | their| our

its

Raghav’s | Anjali's

friends : friends ?

classmate : classmates ?

neighbour : neighbours ?

parent : parents ?

cousin : cousins ?

brother : brothers ?

sister: sisters?

Using the Table

​Part B: Apply newly learnt knowledge to SS 1 sentences

Here we just extend the subject column of the table used in SS 1 to include subjects with possessive pronouns like my father/ her mother etc.

I

am

​Singular

(name of a person)

Raghav | Anjali

(Gender)
A boy | A girl | a male | a female

(nativity)
an Indian | a Hyderabadi citizen

(Profession)
a student| a teacher| a worker | a bus driver | a housewife

(current feelings and qualities)

good | fine | bad | happy | sad |angry | tired | sleepy | energetic

 athletic | sporty | naughty
smart | intelligent | cool

(common phrases)
from Hyderabad | from Bangalore | 10 years old | in class 5

(name of object)
a book | a pencil | a pen | a chalk | a shirt | an eye | an ear | a lip |

an umbrella

You

are

Singular

He

She

It

Raghav | Anjali

This

That

My brother | Her sister | His mother

Their cousin | Their father | Our friend

His best friend || Her close friend

Your younger sister || Our grandfather || Your classmate

 My teacher

is

Plural​

We

They

These

Those

My brothers | Her sisters

Their cousins | Our friend | His best friend

 Her close friends | Your younger sisters

Your classmates | My teachers

are

​Plural

boys | girls | males | females

Indians | Hyderabadi citizens


students | teachers | workers | bus drivers | friends

good | bad | happy | sad | angry

from Hyderabad | from Bangalore

10 years old | in class 5

 books | pencils | pens | chalks | shirts

eyes | ears| lips

Using the Table

​Part C:

​This part is specifically there to introduce more complex nouns which can be formed using possessive style nouns e.g. my pen – my father’s pen – my sister’s pen – her classmate’s friend’s pen. Relationship can be also be shown this way e.g. My friend's sister; my brother's friend. So this table is there just to show the student that noun subjects can be as long as you like. In the coming SS there would be long noun subjects used as and when required.

The complex nouns shown in the table are there in subject form but they can also be used as object i.e. they can come after the linking verbs (is/am/are etc). E.g. Raghav is my brother's name. This is my friend's bag;  She is my classmate's cousin. In the coming SS you will encounter them (these complex nouns) as subjects and objects both.

  • TABLE
  • TABLE 2

Interrogative form for the previous two tables

​NOTE: Using ‘What/Who’ – column 4 may be skipped in some cases e.g. what is my age?

​Who/What

​is

my

your

his

her

their

our

Its

cousin’s

mother’s

father’s

brother’s

younger sister’s

grandfather’s

classmate’s

teacher’s

student’s

name?

age?

class?

height?

weight?

school?

classmate?

neighbour?

​are

your

his

her

their

our

Its

friend’s : friends’

classmate’s : classmates’

neighbour’s : neighbours’

parent’s : parents’

cousin’s : cousins’

brother’s : brothers’

sister’s : sisters’

​names ?

ages ?

classes?

heights?

weights?

schools?

classmates?

neighbours?

Using the Table

Exercises

NOTE: 

  1. The pictures shown in the exercises below are only for illustration. The teacher should use surrounding objects in the classroom to create situations similar to those shown in the pictures. In this way the student engagement in the class is greatly increased compared to the situation of showing static pics through a laptop/projector.
  2. Words in the bracket are those that are not part of the table/ exercises but belong to the same word family.
  3. Words/phrases that are more advanced grammatically have been highlighted in red. Please ensure that you completely translate such sentences into the students' native language so that they are at-least able to get the rough ,meaning of the sentences if not the meaning of each word/phrase.  

Exercise 1

Fill in the blanks using the correct pronoun. Choose from “my, his, their, our, her’’

Nouns

hat

​          My hat                         ................. hat

      ​................. hat                     ................... hat

​       .................... hats

Exercise 2

Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns. Use “his, our, their, her, its”

Nouns

​dog, bookshelf, remote, TV

1. These are students. Raj is ............................... teacher.​

​    2. This is Jay. Titu is .................. dog.

​    3. This is Diya. ............... weight is 30 kg.

Cell 3 / 1

​    4. We are Tanu and Manu. This is ........................ bookshelf.

​    5. This is a TV. This is ........................ remote.

Exercise 3

Tell us about yourself.

Nouns

language (give examples of names of languages such as Gujarati, English, Marathi, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada etc.), city)

(Teacher can ask students to answer either in one word or in full sentences, depending on her assessment of the class’ abilities)

What is your name?

What is your school’s name?

What is your best friend’s name? What is your favorite cousin’s name?

Are you from Hyderabad? Is your cousin from Hyderabad?

What is your height?

Is your mother tongue Kannada? Is your best friend’s mother tongue Kannada?

Exercise 4

Fill in the blanks using his, her, their, our

Nouns

doctor

1. Reena is from Chennai. __________friend is from Bangalore.

2. Raman is 23 years old. ______ mother is 50 years old.

3. Tanuja and Rama are sisters. _______ father is a doctor.

4. We are students. _________ school is Kondapur public school.

Exercise 5

Whose things are these?

Nouns

​Interrogative Words

​Kite, books, bag, bicycle

Whose​

Names in the pictures are – Preeti and Aayush

  1. Whose bag is this?

​This is .............................................................................

​    2. Whose school bag is that?

​That is .............................................................................

​    3. Whose kite is this?

​This is .............................................................................

​    4. Is it Preeti’s bicycle?

​No, It is not Preeti's bicycle. It is .............................................................................

   ​5. Whose books are these?

​These are .............................................................................

​   6. Is this Aayush’s book?

​ Yes, It is .............................................................................

Exercise 6 

Write sentences. Follow the example given to you.

Nouns

Garden, camera, daughter

Example:

          SARA                                  BOOK

This is Sara.This is her book.

​       KISHORE                                      BOOKS

............................................................................................

​    ME AND MY MOTHER                    GARDEN

This is ...............................................................................

​ NAMRATA AND HER DAUGHTER         CAMERA

............................................................................................

Exercise 7

Vocabulary:

Pronouns

this, that, these, those, he, she, I, we, my

Rashi is introducing her family. Complete the following sentences using the pronouns given in the vocabulary :

  1. ............. am Rashi. .............. is my family. ............ are from Surat.
  2. ................ family has 6 members.
  3. ................ is my father. His name is Suresh. ................ is a doctor. 
  4. ............... is my mother. Her name is Shobha. ............... works in a bank.
  5. ............ are my grandparents. Their families are from Baroda.
  6. .......... is my grandfather. ............. is an Engineer.
  7. ............... is my grandmother. ............... is a school teacher.
  8. ................. are my younger sisters, Amrita and Anita. ............. study in Class 4. ............... are their toys.
  9. Amrita is an athletic girl. ............... plays basketball.
  10. Anita is very intelligent. ............... reads a lot of books.
  11. ............... is our house and ............. all live happily together.

Exercise 8

Pair up with a friend for the following exercises. Describe your friends in the following pattern: (The teacher is requested to assist the students with the words in the brackets and suggest alternatives to them is necessary.)

​................. is my friend. ........... is a girl/boy. (He/She) is (age) years old and is from (place of residence). .............. is a very ( intelligent/atheletic/creative etc). (His/Her) hobbies are (drawing/painting/dancing/singing/ playing etc). ...............'s mother is a ............... . (His/Her) father is a ..................... . .................... has (0/1/2/3) siblings.They study in (school name).

......................'s height is ................... cms and (he/she) weighs ............. kgs. (His/Her) hair is (hair colour) [Please point out that hair is always singular]. ................​'s favourite colour is .................. . When (he/she) grows up, .................... wants to become a (doctor/engineer/lawyer/teacher/scientist, actor/ sportsperson/politician etc).

Exercise 9

Negate the following statements to answer the questions: (The students will be given only the question, they have to answer the question with negation.)

  1. Is this a stool? No, it is a chair.
  2. Is she a teacher? No, she is a driver.
  3. Does he live in Kolkata? No, he lives in Durgapur.
  4. Do you like playing badminton? No, I like playing chess.
  5. Will you go to the zoo tomorrow? No, we will go to the park tomorrow.
  6. Is that a monkey on the tree? No, that is a squirrel.
  7. Is Meghana a tall girl? No, Meghana is short.
  8. Are you hungry? No, I just had lunch.
  9. Should I close the door? No, please leave it open.
  10. Are these clothes yours? No, those are Amish’s clothes.

Exercise 10

Advanced Exercise: not necessary to teach here. Teach if you feel that your student's are really comfortable with such material.

who, when, will, which, how, what, is, should, may, can

  1. ________ you please help me?
  2. ________ Rohan coming with us?
  3. ________ time is it?
  4. ________ train are we taking to Nagpur?
  5. ________ are you feeling today?
  6. ________ is the show starting?
  7. ________ is knocking on the door?
  8. ________ I go to the bathroom, please?
  9. ________ we plan a meeting next week?
  10. ________ we help them?

Exercises from Raymond Murphy

Stories

Story 1

Read the paragraph given below and answer the questions.

Nouns

badminton player, title, Olympic medal

This is Saina Nehwal. She is a badminton player. Her age is 25. She is from Hyderabad. Saina has won 16 big badminton titles. She has also won an Olympic medal. She is India’s best badminton player. Her mother’s name is Usha Rani. Her father’s name is Harvir Singh. Saina’s parents are proud of her.

Answer the questions after reading the paragraph.

1. Saina Nehwal is a-

  1. Dancer
  2. Badminton player
  3. Tennis player

2. Saina is from-

  1. Hyderabad
  2. Aurangabad
  3. Ahmedabad

3. Who is India’s best badminton player?

4. What are Saina’s parents’ names?

5. What is Saina’s age?

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