Sentence structure 10

Welcome

This is the tenth SS for Level 1. To understand this SS student is expected to have a working knowledge upto SS-9. You can confirm their knowledge by taking them through the Level Selector Test.


How to use this SS?​

After setting up the class follow these steps:

First, cover the vocabulary section by explaining to the student the meaning of the words in their local language. Ask the students to note down these word meanings in their notebook. The words in the vocabulary section (below) will be used in the table which we will create next.

Now, recreate the table (below) on the black board (you can use fewer words in column 3 to speed it up). After this, make some sentences using the match the following style i.e. choose one word from 1st column then choose an appropriate word from second and then choose the appropriate 3rd column phrase/word. Demonstrate this process to the students and lead them to make few more sentences like this. A few sample sentences made using the table words are given below the table for quick reference.

After this stage students when you feel that students have some clarity about the Table then begin the individual exercises. The exercises can be taught in any order but it is recommended to teach them in the given order. After the exercises move on to the story section. This section is made so that students are able to apply all the sentences taught in this SS in their day to day conversations.

Tables

  • Table 1
  • Table 2

​Interrogative table

Who

Verb

Phrase 1(What)

Phrase 2(With/For + Whom)(With what)

Phrase 3(Where)

Phrase 4(When)

​Who

play => played

learn => learned

live => lived

study => studied

show => showed

bake => baked

cook => cooked

Exercises

NOTE: Words in the bracket are those that are not part of the table/ exercises but belong to the same word family.

Exercise 1

Fill the blanks using simple past tense of the verbs given in the bracket.​

Nouns

Verbs

​Restaurant, dal and rice, train, table, chair, hall

​Play, like, eat, forget, travel, miss, ride, go, fly, know, make, grow, feel, work, meet

  1. My sister__________(play) computer games yesterday.
  2. I __________( not like) the food in the restaurant.
  3. We _________(eat) dal and rice for dinner.
  4. My brother_________(forget) his watch at home.
  5. The Patels _________(travel) to London last year.
  6. Sania_________(miss) the train.
  7. Last month the man _________(ride) a horse.
  8. Sana __________ (go) to Hong Kong last year.
  9. The birds ______(fly) in the sky this morning.
  10. I _____(know) Tejas’ house last year.
  11. The carpenter _____ (make) tables and chairs yesterday.
  12. The farmer ______ (grow) rice last year.
  13. He ______(feel) happy yesterday.
  14. We ______ (work) hard last week.
  15. The students ______ (meet) in the hall last week.

Exercise 2

Write the past simple of the following verbs.

Verbs

​Pay, play, buy, visit, get, see, go, think, copy, know, put, speak

  1. Pay
  2. Play
  3. Buy
  4. Visit
  5. Get
  6. See
  7. Go
  8. Think
  9. Copy
  10. Know
  11. Put
  12. Speak

Exercise 3

Nouns

Verbs

​Railway station, waiting room, compartment, tourist guide, samosa

​Visit, love, see, meet, work, speak, travel, Travel, wake, drink, leave, go, wait, buy, eat, read arrive, is, find, sit, reach, take

A. Read about Shreya’s journey to Pune. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Verb List:

​1.Travel 2. Wake 3. Drink 4. Leave 5. Go 6. Wait 7. Buy 8. Eat 9. Read 10. Arrive 11. Is 12. Find 13. Sit 14. Reach 15. Take

Last Tuesday Shreya (1) _______ from Mumbai to Pune. She (2)_____ up at six o’ clock in the morning and (3) _____ tea. At 6.30 she (4) ____ home and (5)______ to the railway station. There she(6) ______ in the waiting room. She(7) _____ a samosa for Rs.10 and (8) ______ it. She then (9)_____ a book. The train finally (10) _____ at 7.30. It (11) ____ 20 minutes late. Shreya (12) _____ her compartment and (13)_____. The train (14)______Pune three hours later. Shreya (15)_____ a taxi from the railway station to her hotel.

B. Read about the Mehtas’ journey to Udaipur and fill in the blanks by using simple past or simple present tense of the verbs,

Every year, the Mehtas ……………..(visit) Rajasthan. They ……….(love) it there. Last year, they …………..(visit) Jaipur. They …………..(see) the City Palace. The City Palace ………(be) one of the most famous places in Udaipur. There, they …………..(meet) their best friend Arya. Arya………….(be) a 35 years old Rajasthani man. He………….(work) as a tour guide. He …………….(speak)Hindi and English.

Exercise 4

Write sentences about the past. (yesterday/ last week etc.)

Nouns

Verbs

​Cinema, car, keys, apple, shower

​Meet, go, lose, have, eat

  1. Jay always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.
  2. Riya often loses her keys. She ________________________________ last week.
  3. Kriti meets her friends every evening. She _____________________yesterday evening.
  4. I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I ____________________________.
  5. We usually go to the cinema on Sundays. Last Sunday we ____________________________.
  6. I eat an apple every day. Yesterday I _______________________________________________.
  7. Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he _____________________________.

Exercise 5

Tell us about yourself. Which of the following activities did you do yesterday? Answer by writing positive and negative sentences in simple past tense.

Nouns

Verbs

Phrase

​Letter, milk, hair

​Watch, do, run, go, learn, dance, read, write, drink, reach, answer, cry, wash, sleep

​On time

Activity list:

eat rice, play with friends, watch TV, do homework, run, go to school, learn English, dance, read the newspaper, write a letter, drink milk, wash your hair, sleep before 10.30 PM, reach school on time, answer questions in class,cry

Exercise 6

Complete the following table. One example has been done for you.

Nouns

Verbs

​Picture

​Swim, draw, watch, sing

Picture

Positive sentence

Negative sentence

​They play

They played.

They did not play.​

I swim

He runs

She draws

We watch TV​

They sing​

Exercise 7

Read.

Answer or write questions.

Nouns

Verbs

​Fruits, vegetables, chips, cookies, burgers, water, kho kho , smbhar, soba

​Slept, ate, played, drank,took, feels (well), watched)

Yesterday, Raashi slept a lot. She ate fresh fruit and vegetables and she drank lots of water. She played kho kho with her friends and then she took a shower in the afternoon. She had sambar-rice for dinner. Today, Raashi feels very well. Her friend, Aashna, didn’t sleep a lot. She ate too many chips and biscuits and she drank lots of soda. She watched the TV all day. She had three burgers for dinner. Today, Aashna doesn’t feel well.

Answer Questions.

  1. What did Raashi eat yesterday?

………………………………………………….……………………… .

  1. What did Raashi drink?

………………………………………………….……………………… .

  1. What did Raashi do in the afternoon?

…………………………………………………………………………. .

Write Questions.

1.…………………………………………….…..………………………?

She drank lots of soda

2………………………………………………..….……………………. ?

She ate too many chips and cookies.

3.………………………………………………..….……………………. ?

She had three hot dogs for dinner.

Exercise 8

Select the correct alternative.

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

​Magazine, website, information,store, week, mistake

​Find, stop, call, make, appoint

​Favourite

  1. ………the information on the magazine’s website. (Find)
    a. Finded
    b. Found
    c. Founded
  2. She didn’t……………the man from going into the store. (Stop)
    a. Stopped
    b. Stop
    c. Stoped
  3. Did you………….. him this week? (call)
    a. call
    b. called
    c. calls
  4. She……………..a few mistakes. (Make)
    a. Makes
    b. Maked
    c. Made
  5. Sriti was……………..by Purab and Bulbul was………………..by Abhi. (Appoint)
    a. Appointed
    b. Appoint
    c. Appointied

Exercise 9

A.Rewrite the sentences using the simple past of the verbs.

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Phrase​

​Meeting, money, sitar, pencils, pens

​Avoid, buy, sell, visit, stay, wake up

​Married

Alright​

1. I didn’t talked to her because she avoid me at the last meeting.
____________________________________________________

2. Where did you got this money?
___________________________________

3. She call me yesterday and said she is doing all right.
________________________________________

4. Mishti play the sitar very well.

________________________________

5. We buy pencils and sold pens.

_________________________________

B.Find the mistake and correct it.

1.We visit Madurai last year.

……………………………………………………………………………

2.Last week, We stayed in Bangalore.

……………………………………………………………………………

3.I wake up yesterday at 7 am.

……………………………………………………………………………

4.He play good cricket yesterday.

……………………………………………………………………………

5.Purab and Alia was married.

……………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 10

Put the sentences into simple past.

Nouns

Verbs

​Poem, door, garden

​Open, write, speak, dance, sing

1. We open the door. →
2. You write poems. →
3. Radhika plays in the garden. →
4. Nihaar does not speak English. →
5. Amruta and Himanshu dance very well.
6. I sing well.

Exercise 11

Read about Shaurya’s typical working day.

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

​Jog, breakfast, bicycle, meal

​Get up, go, ride, start,have, finish, watch, cook, sleep

​Tired

I usually get up at 6 o’clock and have a shower. Then, I go for an early morning jog in the

park. After that, I have a big breakfast and I ride my bicycle to work.

I start work at 8:30. I never have lunch. I finish work at 5 o’clock. I am

always tired when I get home. I usually cook a meal in the evening and then watch TV. I

don’t usually go out at night. I go to bed at about 10:30. I always sleep well.

Yesterday was a typical day for Shaurya. Write what he did or didn’t do yesterday.

Remember to change the verbs in to the past simple tense.

  1. He ___________ up at 6 o’clock.
  2. He ___________ for an early morning jog.
  3. He ___________ a big breakfast.
  4. He ___________ his bicycle to work.
  5. He ___________ work at 8:30.
  6. He ___________ ___________ lunch.
  7. He ___________ ___________ at 5 o’clock.
  8. He ___________ tired when he ___________ home.
  9. He ___________ a meal yesterday evening.
  10. He ___________ TV.
  11. He ___________ ___________ out last night.
  12. He ___________ to bed at 10:30.
  13. He ___________ well last night.
  14. What did you do yesterday? Write a short paragraph using the past simple.

Exercise 12

Write a few sentences about each of the following personalities using the information given below their pictures.

(Note for teacher: Here emphasis is not to be laid solely on forming sentences correctly in simple past. The order in which the student arranges the sentences to form a coherent paragraph is also very important.)

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

​Ahimsa, lawyer, freedom fighter, father of the nation, Roman Catholic Missionary, Nobel Prize for Peace/Literature, AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis, Bharat ratna, painter, writer, queen, warrior, Revolt of 1857, religious philosophies, orator, founder, education, orphanages, schools, the poor, world, astronaut, space, space shuttle, professor, philosopher, Vice President, President, Teacher’s Day, Birthday

​Killed, died, born, believed, wrote, won, fought, work, spread, crashed, celebrated

​Brave

For example, while writing about Gandhi if the student says “Gandhi was born on 2nd October. He was killed on 31 January, 1948 by Nathuram Godse in Delhi. He was a believer in ahimsa. He was a freedom fighter and a lawyer.” Though the sentences are grammatically correct the paragraph does not flow naturally. This is not what is expected of the students.)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Born- October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat.

Killed on January 1948 at New Delhi by Nathuram Godse.

Believed in ahimsa (non violence)

Lawyer, Freedom Fighter

Father of the Nation

Mother Teresa

Born- August 26, 1910 in Macedonia.

Roman Catholic Missionary

Helped people suffering from AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis etc. Ran orphanages and schools. Worked for the poor.

Won Nobel Prize for Peace and the Bharat Ratna.

Won Nobel Prize for Peace and the Bharat Ratna.

Rabindranath Tagore

Born- May 7, 1861, Kolkata

Freedom Fighter, Painter, Writer

Wrote Geetanjali, Jana Gana Mana

Won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913

Rani Laxmibai

Born- November 19, 1828 in Varanasi

Queen of Jhansi, Brave warrior.

Fought in the Revolt of 1857.

Swami Vivekananda

Born- 12 January 1863 in Kolkata

Real Name- Narendra Datta

Worked to spread the message of Hindu philosophies among the people of the world

Very good orator (speaker)

Founder of Ramakrishna Mission which works to spread education and religious philosophies.

Kalpana Chawla

Born- March 17, 1962 in Karnal.

Worked with NASA, First Indian woman astronaut to go to space.

Died on February 1, 2003 when the space shuttle Columbia crashed.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Born- September 5, 1888

Philosopher, Professor

First Vice President and second President of India.

Won Bharat Ratna

Teacher’s Day is celebrated each year on his birthday

Exercise 13

This is a poem by Vivaan. Read the poem and then answer the questions that follow.

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs​

​Happiness, joy, books, chair, mark, day, room, hair, breakfast, things, teeth, clothes, nose

​Jumped, got up, washed, stood, put on (clothes), cleaned, rubbed, brushed (hair), packed, sat, went, opened, saw, picked, said, got, ran

​Excellent

Early, cool​

I got up early,
Jumped out of bed,
I washed my hands
And stood on my head.

I jumped for joy
And put on my clothes,
I cleaned my teeth
And rubbed my nose.

I had my breakfast,
Brushed my hair,
I packed my things
And sat on the chair.

I went to my room,
Opened the door.
I saw my books
On the floor.

I picked them up,
Three or four,
Said “Good- bye”,
Went to the door.

With happiness and joy
I ran to school,                                                                                                                                                                                                     I got an excellent mark                                                                                                                                                                                       My  day was cool!

  1. Vivaan got up a) Early b) Late
  2. Mention any 5 activities Vivaan did yesterday.
  3. What did Vivaan do after he cleaned his teeth?
  4. Look at the picture and write what Vivaan had for breakfast yesterday.
  5. Where were Vivaan’s books?
  6. What did Vivaan do at school?
  7. Did Vivaan have fun yesterday?

Exercise 14

(Can be restricted to adults if teacher finds content too difficult for kids)

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs​

​Tea stall, bus terminus, political organization, Prime Minister, Chief Minister, leader, economic growth, human development, government, riots

​Helped, praised, encouraging, criticised, failed, improved

Current

(work) hard, significantly​

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi was born on September 17, 1950, in Vadnagar, Gujarat. Modi was the third of six children and as a child he helped his father sell tea at the Vadnagar railway station, and later ran a tea stall with his brother near a bus terminus. He joined a political organization called Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh (RSS) when he was just eight.

He worked very hard and now he is the 15th and current Prime Minister of India.Modi, is a leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and was the Chief Minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014. He did very good work in Gujarat. He was praised for encouraging economic growth in the state. Sometimes he was criticised because he failed to significantly improve the human development in the state. Modi was also criticised a lot because when he was the Chief Minister of Gujarat, his government failed to prevent the 2002 Gujarat riots.

.Reading comprehension

  1. Who is the text about?
  2. When did he join politics?
  3. What did Modi do as a child?
  4. When was Modi the Chief Minister of Gujarat?
  5. Why was Modi criticized when he was the Chief Minister of Gujarat?
Activities

Task 1

Practical application

Explain to the students that the simple past tense can be used to talk about virtually any activity that was completed in the past. Give them examples such as :

My Birthday

My birthday is on 16th December. Last year I had a very nice birthday. My friends came to surprise me at 12 o’ clock at night. They bought me a big chocolate cake and many gifts. We cut the cake and ate it. Then I opened my gifts. I loved them. We talked and laughed for some time and then my friends went home. The next morning first I went to the temple after getting ready. Then I went to school. At school my friends wished me again. My teachers also blessed me. The class sang the birthday song for me. I gave everyone a small chocolate. At night my mother made my favorite food –pav bhaji for dinner. I loved it. Then my parents took me out for ice cream. That was the best birthday of my life.

A Holiday

Last Diwali I went for a holiday with my family. I went to Malwan. Malwan is a coastal village in Maharashtra. We went by car. It took us 6 hours to reach. We stayed in a small hotel near a lake. Our rooms were nice and clean. We were tired and went to sleep. The next day we went to the beach. There we did snorkeling. Then we played in the sand. We made sandcastles. In the evening we went for a long walk. We ate the local Malawani food for dinner. It was delicious. The next day we went for a boat ride on the sea. We saw 6 dolphins. They were very sweet. I clicked many pictures. Later we also visited the Sindhudurg fort. It is a sea fort which was built by Shivaji. It was very big and magnificent.

I really enjoyed my trip.

Task 2

​Time Expression Cards

An hour ago

This morning​

Yesterday​

Last night​

Last week

Two weeks ago

Last year

Two days ago

Last Saturday

Last Sunday

In 2013

A week ago

When I was six

Last Summer​

When I was 10

Yesterday evening

Five years ago

Yesterday afternoon

A month ago

In 2012

Last winter​

A long time ago

Ten years ago​

Last month​

​Verb Cards

be

have

go

take

get

do

leave

start

see

buy

live

finish

listen to

watch

meet

lean

choose

feel

keep

wear

think

clean​

know​

like​

Here is a challenging and fun way for students to practice past simple sentence formation. Before class, make one copy of the worksheet for each group of four students, cut the cards up as indicated, separate into two piles (time expression cards and verb cards) and shuffle.

Procedure

Split the class into groups of four. Give each group a set of time expression cards and verb cards. Explain that the students are going to practice making true past simple sentences about themselves. Tell them to put the time expression cards face down on the desk and deal out the verb cards equally between the students in the group. Each student should have six verb cards in their hand. Students take it in turns to turn over a time expression card from the pile and then try to make a true past simple sentence using one of the verbs on their cards and the time expression.

If the student constructs a believable past simple sentence, which is agreed on by the other players to be true, the student may discard their verb card. If the other players think the sentence can’t be true, they challenge the student, and he or she has to keep the verb card. Students can also challenge the player if the sentence is grammatically incorrect or the wrong verb form is used, in which case the student also has to keep the card. The aim of the game is to be the first student to get rid of all their verb cards. If all the time expression cards get used up, they can be turned over and used again. The activity is quite easy at first because there is a choice of verbs, but it becomes more challenging to make a meaningful sentence as the game progresses

Activity for regular Past Simple pronunciation and spelling

The most active way of practicing this point is getting students to physically react depending on which form they think they hear (preferably being able to analyse them using the rules which have been presented to double check). This only really works with a double distinction (rather than trying to do all three pronunciations of –ed at the same time). Young learner classes can be asked to run and touch opposite walls of the room with “/id/” and “/d/ or /t/” written on them (in a game called Stations) or race to slap one of two cards on their desk.

Who did what?

Students are given some cards with verbs or whole actions on (e.g. “Jump” or “Jump next to the teacher’s desk twice”). Several students stand up and do their actions at the same time, and the people sitting down have to say or write down who did what, plus in what order if each student had more than one card.

My Achievement (probably only for adult students)

Students talk about a significant achievement in their lives. They must describe what they did leading up to that event.

Example- completing graduation/ came first in class/ got full marks in maths-

Steps- took appropriate classes, went for tuition, did homework daily, studied hard for 5 hours every day etc.

Or Won football championship-

Steps- practiced with the team every day for 3 hours, exercised hard, built stamina, practiced penalties

Got a job/ wrote a letter in English/ bought a cycle etc

Good day Bad Day

Students talk about one good day and one bad day in their lives, explaining why it was bad.

The teacher may give a demo first.

Another way of executing this activity is as follows-

As a class, brainstorm and make a list of things that make a day good or bad.

Eg- Bad day- getting late for class, spilling coffee, get punished in school, getting hurt, losing money/some other valuable, having a fight with someone…etc

Good day- getting praised in class, getting a good result, having fun with friends, getting a gift, being on time etc

Students then get into pairs and ask their partners questions such as – Did you spill coffee yesterday? Or Did you have fun with friends yesterday? The partner must answer ‘Yes, I did” or ‘No I didn’t’ as the case may be. The students may have this question answer session to cover all/ a specific number of activities from the list you have created (say 10 from each list). After answering the questions they must look at their answers and try to decide if yesterday was more of a good day for them or more of a bad day.

Clock fun

The students can be given a piece of cardboard and asked to make the face of a clock on it. The teacher can then attach two hands on the clock using a pin in such a way that the hands can be moved.

Thereafter, the teacher or the students can take turn asking questions like- What time did you have breakfast/lunch/dinner yesterday or what time did you go to bed last night? The student whose turn it is must answer, must move the hands of the clock to signify the correct time and must answer in simple past. Example- I ate dinner at 8 PM yesterday.

Mistakes: Tell students to write around 3 statements in the past tense on slips of paper, but tell them to make mistakes in writing the tense. Example- They must write- I eated breakfast at 3 PM yesterday. Or I singed a dance yesterday. (Such crazy situations make the class more fun. However if you feel thatthis is too hard for your students, they may write sentences that are wrong only in the grammatical sense and not in the sense of logic like the examples given here). Collect all the strips and swap them with others. Every child must now correct the statements he has received.

Can be done even as a group activity.

Bang!

The teacher writes/ says a verb aloud in the infinitive form. Students must bang the table if they know the past tense of the verb. The student who bangs first gets to answer. If the answer is correct, he/his team (this can be played even as a team game) get a point.

The last time I

Write a number of actions on different slips of paper. Place these slips in the middle, face down. A student picks up one slip and makes a sentence using that action using the sentence structure- The last time I (the action in past tense) was (time phrase). Example- The last time I played cricket was on last Sunday.

If the sentence is correct the student may keep the slip with himself. If its wrong, he must return it to the pile.

Examples of actions: play cricket, dance, sing, run, ride a cycle, watch TV, watch a film, cook, go shopping etc

Yesterday

Write 12 key times on little squares (Example 8am, 10pm, 12pm, 5pm, 7am etc) Put them in a box. The student whose turn it is pull one square. He must then make a sentence using the sentence structure- ‘Yesterday I (relevant verb in simple past) at (the time he picked) o’ clock. You may put in a few wild card squares with ? on them. Here the child can choose any time he likes.

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