Sentence structure 16

Welcome

This is the first Sentence Structure (SS) for Level 2. To understand this SS student is expected to have a working knowledge upto SS-15 i.e. complete level 1. You can confirm their knowledge by taking them through the Level Selector Test.

The aim of this SS is to familiarize the student with gerunds and infinitives. Please see these short links to quickly understand what gerund sand infinitives are:

  1. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/gerund.htm
  2. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/infinitive.htm

How to use this SS?

After setting up the class follow these steps:

First, cover the vocabulary section by explaining to the student the meaning of the words in their local language. Ask the students to note down these word meanings in their notebook. The words in the vocabulary section (below) will be used in the table which we will create next.

Now, recreate the table (below) on the black board (you can use fewer words in column 3 to speed it up). After this, make some sentences using the match the following style i.e. choose one word from 1st column then choose an appropriate word from second and then choose the appropriate 3rd column phrase/word. Demonstrate this process to the students and lead them to make few more sentences like this. A few sample sentences made using the table words are given below the table for quick reference.

After this stage students when you feel that students have some clarity about the Table then begin the individual exercises. The exercises can be taught in any order but it is recommended to teach them in the given order. After the exercises move on to the activity section. This section is created to enable the students to apply all the sentences taught in this SS in their day to day conversations.

Tables

  • Table 1
  • Table 2
  • table 3

Gerund table

Subject

Verb

Gerund

Object (Optional)

Additional phrase​

I

Radhika

My close friend Anjali

Their class teacher Mr. Srinivasan

Her brothers Rakesh and Ramiya

The PM Mr.Modi

This/That + boy/girl/person

These boys

They

enjoy

like

dislike

prefer

suggest

love

start

mind

finish

stop

continue

reading

eating

writing

drawing

painting

cooking

sleeping

dancing

exercising

thinking

staying

visiting

teaching

going

getting up

walking​

story books

science fiction

mysteries

short stories

village scenes

cartoons

chess

cricket

roti

the temple/mosque/church

mathematics​

with my grandmother in the evening

with watercolours

yesterday evening

for his wife

on the streets last night

for dinner tonight

to his students till 2 o'clock

to school in the rainy season

everyday after school​

Using the Table

Exercises

Exercise 1

Vocabulary:

Verb

​Phone, shall, can, might, must

Complete the sentences.

Write: ‘phone Tanu’ or ‘to phone Tanu’

  1. I’ll phone Tanu
  2. I’m going to phone Tanu.
  3. Can you …………………Tanu?
  4. Shall I………………….?
  5. I would like ………………………
  6. You should ……………………….
  7. I want…………………………..
  8. I might………………………….
  9. You must…………………..

Answer

Exercise 2

Vocabulary:

Verb

Adjective

Noun​

Adverb​

​Help, use, buy, apologize, expect, intend

Silly

​Window, dress, country, mistake, postcard, crossword

Easily​

Put the verb in the correct form. Choose: The infinitive (work/go etc) OR to….(to work/to go etc) or –ing (working/going etc)

  1. Shall I …………… the window? (open)
  2. It’s late. I have ………….now. (go)
  3. Anu isn’t ……… this weekend. She is ill. (work)
  4. I can’t ………….you. (help)
  5. Would you like …………….. with me. (play)
  6. I have ………. a phone-call. (make) May I …… your phone? (use)
  7. She agreed __________________ (buy) a new dress.
  8. My parents wanted me __________________(be) home at 10 0’ clock.
  9. Are you__________________(spend) next weekend in the country?
  10. Avoid __________________ (make) silly mistakes.
  11. They __________________(listen) loud music.
  12. I enjoy __________________ (write) postcards.
  13. I’ve got some work __________________(do).
  14. I meant __________________(apologize).
  15. My sister likes __________________(bake) cakes.
  16. Mansi expects __________________(pass) the exam tomorrow.
  17. My friends and I intend __________________(go) out after dinner.
  18. She apologised for __________ (interrupt) the session.
  19. They seemed __________ (know) each other’s thoughts before they spoke.
  20. John is afraid of __________(fly).
  21. We saw them __________ (do) all the damage.
  22. She enjoys __________ (receive) people at home.
  23. I would like __________ (meet) that writer.
  24. This crossword is impossible __________ (do).
  25. They couldn’t __________ (find) the way easily.

Answer

Exercise 3

Vocabulary:

Verb

Adjective

Noun​

Gerund/Infinitive Base Form​

Persuade

Brilliant

Midnight

Knit, argue​

Circle the right option.

  1. We have to stop getting/ to get/ get some petrol.
  2. My sister is brilliant at knitting/ knit/ to knit..
  3. Let’s meeting/ meet/ to meet on Saturday evening for dinner!
  4. There’s no point in argue/ to argue/arguing with Parul. She’s always right!
  5. I’d like trying/ try/ to try horse riding.
  6. It’s worth to do/ do/ doing some exercise every day.
  7. Ram thanked me for help/ to help/ helping.
  8. The windows need clean/ to clean/ cleaning.
  9. Pratik promised to be/ being/ be back before midnight.
  10. My friends persuaded me studying/ to study/ study Medicine.

Answer

Exercise 4

Vocabulary:

Verb

Adjective

Noun​

Phrase​

​Create, explain, eliminate, consume, replenish, generate, avoid

​Crucial, toxic, dangerous

​Community, economy, position, environment, future health, email

Put off, give a hand​

Correct the sentences below.

  1. Create new jobs in this community has greatly helped the economy.
  2. To explaining my position would take a great deal of time.
  3. Eliminate toxic wastes from the environment is crucial to the future health of our children.
  4. To consuming electrical energy without replenishing it, is dangerous.
  5. Generate some new ideas will greatly enhance our sales.
  6. He avoided tell us about his plans.
  7. I would like coming to the party with you.
  8. Do you mind give me a hand?
  9. My son always puts off do his homework.
  10. Write emails is a quick way of communicate.

Answer

Exercise 5

Vocabulary:

Verb

Noun​

​Imagine, ask out, give up, decide, reply, chat, offer, go out(date)

In context of Facebook: ​confirm as friend, post

​Era, class mates, cinema, relationship

In context of Facebook: ​wall, friend request, status

Love Story of a Modern Era (Adults only? No mature content as such)

Naksh and Tara were classmates. Naksh found Tara really beautiful. He couldn´t imagine __________________ (ask) her out. But he did not give up.

Naksh decided ________________ (send) Tara a friend request on Facebook. She soon confirmed him as a friend. Happy Naksh tried _______________ (write) her a message but Tara didn´t want _________________ (reply). So he looked at all her likes and started __________________ (post) interesting things on her wall. Tara enjoyed ___________________ (read) his posts and comments. Soon they started _________________ (chat) with each other.

One day Tara had a problem with a school project. Naksh gladly offered _____________ (help) her. They had a good time so Tara promised ___________________ (go) to the cinema with Naksh when he asked her. Soon they started _________________ (go) out with each other and their relationship became public when they changed their Facebook status.

Answer

Exercise 6

Vocabulary:

Verb

Noun​

​Don’t like, like, enjoy, love, hate, don’t mind

Holi​

​Look at the grind and write the sentence corresponding to the pictures. Use different verbs like like, dislike, enjoy, hate, does not mind etc. Use the appropriate gerund or informative form of match.

Who

What

Write a sentence​

I

Mr. and Mrs. Dhillon

Nadia

Nihaar

Mr. Sharma

Vandana, Sanjana and Veera

My teacher

Answer

Exercise 7

Vocabulary:

Verb

​Work out

​Describe Deepika Padukone's likes and dislikes using the verbs in the toolbox and the smiley clues given below. The appropriate form of gerund and/or infinitive must be used. An example has been done for you.

Possible emotions that Deepika has are:

Love

Enjoy

Like

Don't Mind​

Don't Like

Hate​

​Things that she does in the below pictures are:

Play, Holi, Dance, Read, Drive, Cook, Exercise/Work out​

Emotions

Pictures

Answer

Deepika Padukone enjoys reading. (here ‘to read’ would be wrong)

Answer

Exercise 8

Vocabulary:

Verb

Noun​

​Visit, travel

Museum​

Answer

Exercise 9

Complete these sentences. Write about yourself. Use ‘to ….’ Or ‘–ing’

  1. I enjoy…………………….
  2. I don’t like…………………………
  3. I wouldn’t like……………………..
  4. On Sundays, I like………………………..
  5. I don’t mind …………………………………..

Exercise 10

Vocabulary:

Noun​

Gerund/Infinitive Base Form

​Kites, comics

​Give away(books), bet, spend, earn, remember

Replace the gerund with the infinitive and vice versa in the following sentences.

Writing a story is not easy.

He likes to collect books. He does not like giving them away.

Sana likes singing and dancing. Rana loved to read and to write.

It is fun to fly kites. Betting on them is bad.

Earning money is good. Spending too much is not.

To see is to remember.

My father hates reading comics.

Jhanvi prefers to study English at night.

Answer

Exercise 11

Vocabulary:

Verb

Noun​

Gerund/Infinitive Base Form​

​Refuse, practise, manage, offer, agree, put off, give up, continue, expect, consider

​Guitar, resolutions

​Smoke, retire, spend time, be negative, organize

Read the New Year Resolutions given below and then do as directed.

  1. Start to spend more time with my family.
  2. Stop smoking.
  3. Try to save more money.
  4. Refuse to be negative.
  5. Practice playing music.
  6. Enjoy living life.
  7. Manage to organize my life.
  8. Offer to help my friends and family more often.
  9. Agree to study more.
  10. Put off retiring.
  11. Finish reading at least 5 books.
  12. Keep on working out.
  13. Give up eating sweets.
  14. Start playing the guitar.
  15. Continue to make progress in English.
  16. Continue watching films in English
  17. Learn to speak Chinese.
  18. Expect to keep all resolutions.
  19. Consider saving money for a house.

Questions:

Answer in complete sentences.

  1. What tense are resolutions written in and why?
  1. Circle all the gerunds (V-ing).
  1. Circle all the infinitives (to + V).
  1. Write 5 resolutions of your own using gerunds or infinitives.

Answer

Exercise 12

Practice:

Identify the verbs that take gerunds, infinitives or both. Classify them in the table below. Then make sentences using the verbs and the appropriate gerund or infinitive forms.

agree / promise / avoid / begin / like / start / stop / try / refuse / practice / enjoy manage / offer / agree / look forward to / put off / finish / keep on / Give up / start / continue / learn / expect / decide / consider 

Gerunds

Infinitives

Both​

Activities

Task 1

Catch the Lie!

Study the questions given below

​This activity can be conducted for

  1. The whole class: One student comes to the front and completes any three sentences from the above cue list. Two must be true and one must be false. The other students must first correct his sentence formation if it is wrong. Then they must guess which is the false sentence. The first student to guess correctly gets a point. Let every student come to the front and share his two truths and one lie. Once everyone has had a chance, the one with the most correct guesses may be declared the winner.
  2. In pairs: Both students in each pair fill out all the sentences above. They must ensure that at least 8 of their answers are lies. Each one reads out his completed sentence to his partner who must first check whether the sentence formation is correct. If not, he must correct him. Then he must guess whether the sentence is true or false. For every correct guess he gets a point. The partner with more points wins.

(for both the above cases ensure that students understand how to lie realistically so that detecting the lie is not easy)

Task 2

This is an activity to practice verbs that are followed by the -ing form or “to” infinitive after verbs. It can either be used as a bingo game or as knots and crosses (tic-tac-toe) games. To play bingo, a teacher or students can take a word out of a bag and make a sentence using the correct form. Students then cross off that verb on their board. Alternatively, students can play in pairs or teams and make a correct sentence for each square in order to write their knots or cross in it. On each board there is a mixture of verbs that take the -ing form, “to” infinitive or either.

Want

​Miss

​Hate

Dislike

Agree

Discuss

Learn

Prefer

Begin​

​Mind

Forget

Ask

​Wish

Enjoy

Love

Begin

Like

Suggest​

​Plan

Prepare

Plan

​Practise

Love

Understand​

Enjoy

Need

Ask​

Suggest

Would like

Dislike

​Prefer

Want

Mind​

Need

Discuss

Wish​

Task 3

The class is split into pairs (A and B) and each student is given part of a worksheet. Student A starts by asking questions to Student B. Student B has to tell their partner different things about themselves. Each question requires a response using a gerund or infinitive. When all the questions have been asked, they swap roles. Afterwards, students give feedback to the class on what they found out about their partner.

NOTE: Either each student can ask his partner all the questions on the list or then the question list can be divided into two equal sets and A asks B questions from set A and vice versa

Ask your partner the following questions.

SET A

Tell me about something you-

  1. Want to do in the future
  2. Are not very good at
  3. Must remember to do this week
  4. Would like to learn
  5. Love doing on the weekend
  6. You avoid doing

SET B

  1. Would like to do in the evening
  2. Need to do tomorrow
  3. Don’t enjoy watching on TV
  4. Enjoy doing on holidays
  5. Forgot to do this week
  6. Are afraid to do
  7. Are very bad at doing

Task 4

Think about your partner and try to make true sentences about him or her. Complete each sentence using a gerund or infinitive. Then read your sentences to your partner. She/he will tell you if they are true or not. The student and pair with the most correct answers wins.

NOTE: Either each student can ask his partner all the questions on the list or then the question list can be divided into two equal sets and A asks B questions from set A and vice versa

Set A

  1. On holidays, you dislike
  2. At home, you enjoy
  3. Next year, you hope
  4. On Sunday mornings, you really like`
  5. You are really good at
  6. This weekend you plan

Set B

  1. You are learning English to
  2. You would like to learn
  3. You are not very good at
  4. This weekend you would like
  5. On holidays you love
  6. You recently decided

Task 5

Task 6

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