Sentence structure 7

Welcome

This is the seventh SS for Level 1. To understand this SS student is expected to have a working knowledge upto SS-6. You can confirm their knowledge by taking them through the Level Selector Test.


How to use this SS?

After setting up the class follow these steps:

First, cover the vocabulary section by explaining to the student the meaning of the words in their local language. Ask the students to note down these word meanings in their notebook. The words in the vocabulary section (below) will be used in the table which we will create next.

Now, recreate the table (below) on the black board (you can use fewer words in column 3 to speed it up). After this, make some sentences using the match the following style i.e. choose one word from 1st column then choose an appropriate word from second and then choose the appropriate 3rd column phrase/word. Demonstrate this process to the students and lead them to make few more sentences like this. A few sample sentences made using the table words are given below the table for quick reference.

After this stage students when you feel that students have some clarity about the Table then begin the individual exercises. The exercises can be taught in any order but it is recommended to teach them in the given order. After the exercises move on to the story section. This section is made so that students are able to apply all the sentences taught in this SS in their day to day conversations.


Introduction to Present Continuous Tense

  • First: part 4 = noun (what: what is she playing? Or Generic question : what is he/she/her friend.. doing? || what are they/their father.. doing?) ;
  • Second: spatial/temporal prepositions (when/where);
  • Third: with
  • There can be verbs like working that don’t need any phrase in part4 So part 4 is optional. Similarly part 5 and 6 are also optional (student must be taught when and how to use them)
  • Here explain that only based on singular/plural : is/are comes (am is only for I) unlike previously where “s” comes in opposite ways (doesn’t follow singular/plural order)
  • Add the word “now” : used to answer a question of type when.
  • Explain that all the activities mentioned in present continuous tense need not be happening at the exact now moment. e.g. “Ankit is reading a story book” need not mean that Ankit is reading the book exactly at the time when the sentence is being spoken. It means that Ankit has started reading a book and he has not yet finished reading it. He is in the middle of reading it. Hence, sentences that are part of present continuous need not only refer to activities that the students are performing right now in the class. It may also refer to activities like reading, playing and learning etc which the students have begun and are yet to finish completely e.g. I am learning English these days. I usually play cricket in the evening but She is playing volleyball this week.

Introduce nouns with adjectives e.g. big hat/my pencil etc

Tables

  • Table 1
  • Table 2

Subject

Verbs 

Object

Phrase

Where

I

My friend Radha

Her younger
brother Rakesh

His father

My friends​

am/

are/     +

is

playing

eating

sleeping

thinking

working

going

having

rice

cricket

an ice cream

with her

about yesterday's cricket match

on a project/assignment

in the park

on the mat

to the market

at the carpenter's shop

at her home

Using the Table

Exercises

Exercise 1

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs​

​Fridge, milk, banana, table, room, bath, sink, window, mice, eleven, kitchen

​Sleep, eat, drink, read, run, jump, sit, climb, have

a. Write the verbs in the present continuous. (present be + ing)

There are eleven mice in my kitchen. Their names are Pinku, Tinku,Rinku, Chhotu, Motu, Moti, Mini, Kaalu, Sonu, Monu and Toni.

Pinku (sleep)_____________________and Tinku (read)______________________a book. Rinku(drink) ___________________milk in the fridge and Chhotu (eat) ______________ a banana under the table. Motu (run) ________________ into the room and Moti (jump) _______________ out of the window. Mini (sit) _______________ in the bin and Kaalu (climb) __________________ up a table leg. Sonu (watch) _______________ TV. Monu(have)______________________a bath in the sink ! But where is Toni ?

b. Read the text again and write the names of the mice in the correct box.

c. Write three questions to test your classmates’ memory, for instance :

What is Motu doing? Where is Sonu? Is Rinku having a bath ?

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________

d. Play the memory game.

Answer

Exercise 2

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs​

​Letter, piano, picture, water, house, mountain

​Write, play, paint, drink, build, climb

Choose the correct option.

A.

​B. Look at the pictures and mark the correct answer.

1.What is he doing?

a. He is jumping.


b. He is playing.


c. He is cooking.


d. He is drinking.

​2. What is she doing?

a. She is skating.


b. She is dancing.


c. She is swimming.


d. She is singing.

​3. What is he doing?

a. He is drinking.


b. He is watching TV.


c. He is cooking.


d. He is eating.

​4. What is he doing?

a. He is climbing


b. He is riding a cycle


c. He is jumping


d. He is flying

​5. What is he doing?

a. He is eating


b. He is speaking


c. He is dancing


d. He is making a cake

Answer

Exercise 3

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs​

Expressions and Phrases

Adverb​

​Sun, door

​Knock, drive, have fight, read, ride, shine

​Oh no, wow, look!, Listen!, a lot of fun

very fast​

Put the verb in brackets into the present continuous, affirmative, negative or interrogative.

  1. Wow! The bus driver _________ (drive) very fast.
  2. Look! They ___________________ (have) a lot of fun.
  3. Oh no, they _______________ (fight).
  4. Listen! Someone ____________________ (knock) on the door.
  5. They _______________ (not read). They ________________ (ride) their cycles outside.
  6. John, look outside the window. The sun _________________ (shine) again.

Answer

Exercise 4

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs

​Monkey, elephant, guitar, tiger

​Sleep, sit, cook, dance, eat, write, ride, play, fight, fly, swim

​Look at the pictures given below and correct the sentences that follow.

1.The monkey is sleeping on the elephant.

2. Chhota Bheem and his friends are cooking.

3. Chhota Bheem and his friends are writing

4. Chhota Bheem is riding a cycle.

5. Chhota Bheem is playing with the tiger.

6. Chhota Bheem and his friends are swimming.

Answer

Exercise 5

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs

​School uniform, hair, chair, sun, shoes, book

Sitting, writing, wearing, talking, reading, teaching, standing, eating, thinking, feeling (well), walking, playing, laughing, looking, wash,rain,sit, eat, learn, dance, shine, read, wear


A. Who around you is doing the following things? Look around and answer in full sentences.

  1.  Example: Sitting on the floor- Anushka is sitting on the floor.
  2. Writing
  3. Wearing school uniform
  4. Talking with a friend
  5. Reading
  6. Teaching
  7. Standing
  8. Eating something
  9. Thinking
  10. Feeling well
  11. Walking
  12. Wearing shoes
  13. Playing
  14. Laughing
  15. Looking outside the window

B. What is happening at the moment? Write TRUE sentences.

  1. Example: I/wash/my hair- I am not washing my hair.
  2. It/rain
  3. I/sit/on a chair
  4. I/eat
  5. I/learn/English
  6. I/dance
  7. The sun/shine
  8. I/wear/shoes
  9. I/read/my book

Exercise 6

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs

​Dinner, floor, television, hat

​Laugh, write

​Look at the picture. Write sentences about Ami. Use 'She is- ing' OR is not-ing'.

  1. Example: Have dinner- She is not having dinner.
  2. Sit on the floor
  3. Watch television
  4. Play the piano
  5. Wear a hat
  6. Read a book
  7. Laugh
  8. Write a letter

Answer

Exercise 7

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs

​Email, kitchen, ground, poem, friends

​Learning, laughing, running

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

I am Tina. I am at home now. I am watching TV. My mother’s name is Reema. She is cooking in the kitchen. She is making rice for dinner. My father’s name is Anuj. He is working in his room. He is writing an email on his computer. My brother’s name is Nihaar. He is studying. He is learning a poem. My sister’s name is Maahi. She is playing in the ground with her friends. They are running and laughing.

  1. What is Tina doing?
  2. Who is cooking? What is she cooking?
  3. Where is Tina’s father working? What is he doing?
  4. What is Nihaar doing?
  5. With whom is Maahi playing?
  6. Put a tick next to the statements that are true. Correct the statements that are false.
  • Tina is playing.
  • Nihaar is learning art.
  • Maahi is playing.
  • Tina’s mother is writing an email.

Answer

Exercise 8

Vocabulary:

Nouns

Verbs

​Clothes, question

​Cry, open, answer, buy

The Opposites: laugh, drown, close, ask, sell​

​Complete the table given below. The first one has been done as an example for you.

Picture

​Positive sentence

Negative sentence

Opposite sentence​

Sleep

Raj is sleeping.

Raj is not sleeping.

Raj is waking up.​

Swim

Cry

Open a book

Answer a question

​Buy clothes

Answer

Exercise 9

Vocabulary:

Nouns

​Watermelons

Answer

Activities

Task 1

Story/Practical Application:

To demonstrate the application of the present continuous tense, carry out actions.Take a chalk and start writing on the board and say: I am writing.

Sit down and pick up a book. Say: I am reading a book.

Start walking around the classroom and say: I am walking.

Keep walking around the classroom and ask a student to join you. Say: Ram is walking. I am walking. We are walking. Get a female student to clarify ‘she is walking.’. Then you may sit down and let the boy and girl walk and say: They are walking.

Continue with as many verbs as you like, but use verbs that the students already know, or introduce new verbs, only a few at a time.

Introduce the Present Continuous – Negative forms

Pick up a book and say: I am reading a book; I’m not reading a newspaper. Give more examples alternating between affirmative and negative statements: Ram, you are looking at me. You are not looking at Shyam. Shyam is listening to me. He’s not listening to Radha. And so on with all persons, singular and plural.

Introduce the Present Continuous – Interrogative forms

– T: Are you listening to me?– S: Yes!– T: Ask me!– S: Are you listening to me?

– T: What are you doing?– S: I’m looking at you.– T: Ask Ram!– S: What are you doing?

Continue with more questions from students. Encourage them to ask different types of questions in different singular and plural persons. If they are unsure as to how to ask a question, model it for them first.

Task 2 and 3

1. Mime

Students mime whole Present Continuous sentences until the other students say the whole correct sentence. It is important they don’t stop until people guess to give the idea of an action in progress. Examples of verbs that can be used- eat, read a book, walk, wave, laugh, cry, sit on the floor, talk on the phone, write, stand on one leg, dance, sing, drink, swim

2. Pictionary

Similar to Mimes and Noises above, students try to guess which Present Continuous sentence someone is drawing on the board, e.g. a picture of a boy/girl/ a boy and a girl eating/ drinking/dancing/running/brushing/playing cricket or football etc.

3. Present Continuous Memory Games​

Students describe what is happening now from memory, i.e. without being able to see what they are speaking about. The simplest way of organizing this is for students to close their eyes and answer questions about what is happening around them, e.g. “Where is John sitting?” and “What colour shoes is Jeremy wearing?” Alternatively, they can brainstorm everything that they can remember without questions to prompt them.

The same thing can be done with a picture that is turned over or scene from a video that is turned off, probably after they look for 30 seconds and try to memorize it first.

Examples of images to be used- children playing at a park, a circus, a fair, people at the beach, people in a market, kids at school.

Teachers may look for pictures that show a lot of people engaging in different activities in newspapers/magazines. Since we are concerned only with pictures, vernacular sources can also be used. Using such sources in fact will help you get more indigenous looking pictures. Another option is to download images off google and take a single print outs.

What changed?​

Students step out of the class, close their eyes or look away. When they look again, they should list the things which have changed, e.g. “Henry is wearing a jacket” or “The teacher is sitting down” because those things changed while they weren’t looking. They can also do the same thing with pictures with differences (“The old woman is drinking coffee” because that was different in the first version of the picture that you showed them)

​4. Present Continuous Tennis

Students “serve” an “I” Present Continuous phrase or sentence such as “I’m skiing” or “I am taking a photo”, their partner returns with the second person form of the same thing, e.g. “You’re skiing”. This continues through all the subjects that you want to practice. To “return”, the next person must then choose another verb or sentence to continue the game with such as “I’m feeling hungry”. If anyone makes a mistake or pauses for too long, they start again with a serve with a new verb. This continues until someone has reached the number of points that you set them as a goal, or the person with highest number of points when you stop the game wins.

5. Present Continuous Brainstorming​

​Students compete to say or write as many things that are going on in the classroom, out the window or in a picture as possible. Give them a fixed and short period of time, say three minutes. The student who has written the maximum true AND grammatically correct sentences can be declared the winner.

6.Present Continuous Picture Search

Students race to find a picture matching the Present Continuous sentence they hear as quickly as possible, e.g. the boy is dancing, the woman is cooking, the man is fishing, etc. Some sample pictures are shown below. You can either take a print out and create Xeroxes. If resources do not permit this, another idea would be to find similar pictures illustrating simple verbs from newspapers or magazines. Since we are concerned only with pictures, vernacular sources can also be used. Using such sources in fact will help you get more indigenous looking pictures.

Dancing

Cooking

Fishing

Laughing​

Playing a guitar

Brushing your teeth

Writing a letter

Putting on makeup​

Playing darts

Washing the dog

Having an argument

Watching a sad film

Exercising​

Being in love

Reading a funny book

Getting scared​

7. Present Continuous Not Getting Through

Students try to give as many different excuses as they can why the person calling can’t speak to the person they want to, e.g. He is eating/ he is sleeping/ she is learning English/ she is playing in the garden/ she is cooking in the kitchen

8. Present Continuous Diaries

Get students to write out what their plans for about three days of the week. (All students must use the same three days)

Tell them to write

MONDAY TUESDAY WEDNESDAY as follows on a sheet of paper. Under each day they must fill in 3-4 major activities that they will do on that day with the time period. Minute to minute accounts are NOT to be made. Also it is very important to explain to the students that they must leave a time gap between two consecutive activities in their diary. It will be a good idea to give an example first and also check what the students have written in their diaries before proceeding with the main activity.

Example: My diary might look as follows-

MONDAY

8AM to 2PM- Go to school

3PM- 5PM- Dance class

6PM-7PM- play cricket with friends

9PM-10PM- see TV

Once all the students are done filling their diaries, put them in pairs. The pairs must then try to find a gap in their diaries when they can meet. (That is they must figure out a time when both of them are free). They must do this by asking each other questions and answering in present continuous.

Ensure that the children know how to ask questions. The template- ‘what are you doing on Monday/Tuesday/ (the relevant day) at 1/2/4/6 AM/PM/ (the relevant time).

Answers can be as simple as I am watching TV

Give a pre activity demonstration so children get a fair idea of how this is to be done.

NOTE: if this is too complicated, the teacher himself can prepare two set diary templates. Each student in a pair gets one of the two templates and they must then execute the activity in the same manner as above. The pair which manages to get a suitable meeting slot first, wins.

Example:

Student 1

Monday

8AM to 2PM- Go to school

3PM- 5PM- Dance class

6PM-7PM- play cricket with friends

9PM-10PM- see TV

Tuesday

8AM to 2PM- Go to school

4PM- 5PM- do homework

6PM-7PM- draw

9PM-10PM- see TV

Student 2

Monday

7AM to 1PM- Go to school

3PM- 5PM- do homework

6PM-7PM- dance class

9PM-10PM- see TV

Tuesday

7AM to 1PM- Go to school

2PM- 5PM- watch a film

6PM-7PM- do homework

9PM-10PM- see TV

​9. Present Continuous Diary Differences

​In an easier but less realistic task than Present Continuous Diaries, students are given two slightly different diary or schedule pages and have to find the differences between them by asking and answering questions with the Present Continuous for future arrangements.

Example:

Tanu

Monday

8AM to 2PM- Go to school

3PM- 5PM- Dance class

6PM-7PM- play cricket with friends

9PM-10PM- see TV

Tuesday

8AM to 2PM- Go to school

4PM- 5PM- do homework

6PM-7PM- draw

9PM-10PM- see TV

Anya

Monday

7AM to 1PM- Go to school

3PM- 5PM- do homework

6PM-7PM- dance class

9PM-10PM- see TV

Tuesday

7AM to 1PM- Go to school

2PM- 5PM- watch a film

6PM-7PM- do homework

9PM-10PM- see TV

10. Board Game

The template for a board game has been attached seperately with this mail.​

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